Inequalities in Education

Inequalities in Education

Beril Buse Durdurak

Istanbul Bilgi University

Abstract

The paper firstly starts with personal observations then reviews inequalities in education in Turkey and making comparisons among all countries and making solid with graphs. To support the statements , there is an interview with classmates ; Ezgi Bingül , Emrecan Topaloğlu and Berivan Kızılocak and a lecturer from Nişantaşı Işık high school Erkut Deral. This paper provides a closer look on inequalities in education focusing on opportunity , gender , race and regions. This paper specifies the current and the previous situation of Turkey year by year. This paper will cover Bourdon’s Education , Opportunity and Social Inequality , child labour , Turkey’s ranking according to OECD , obstacles in front of education which are ; mother tongue , income and gender discrimination , number of universities , students , lecturers based on provinces , student/teacher ratios based on ragions , literacy rate , enrollment in primary and secondary school , comparisons between state and private schools based on the numbers of the equipments , desks and teachers. In addition to these , this paper takes a glance at illiteracy rate among black population and in India. Moreover , the paper specifies Child Labor in Cote d’Ivoir. As a conclusion , Turkey’s situation is still embarrassing according to data collected by MEB’s , Turkish Statistical Institute’s and OECD’s statics.

Nothing But Identical

As Plato states ; “The direction in which education starts a man will determine his future in life.” (Republic , Book IV.) Your education is your entire future. The path you will lead till the end of your life. The path that may bring you an eternity , an eternity that will make you eternal. As Jean Paul Sartre asserts we are nothing but our choices and each of us are destined to death. The fear of this reality is like a shadow between us whether there is a sun to show it or not and to give a meaning to this meaningless life , we would like to make ourselves eternal in this world by bringing a signature , a signature that will make us as if we are not dead. Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther devoted their life for equality. They could live a simple life , they could eat the meal that was served by the others , they could pretend as if they were blind to see the reality , the reality of inequality and savagery but they did not. They educated themselves and tried their best to serve their greatest meal they could cook.

As Socrates indicates ; “The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.” Education is inevitable as to survive and not to be manipulated. You start learning as soon as you are thrown to this world. First , you learn for surviving. You learn not to touch the fire as it will hurt you. Then , you go to schools. There , you learn for earning money and keeping up with the world for the most people’s point of view but indeed , that’s not the initial reason. You learn to create your own reality. You learn to put away the curtains in front of eyes which will save you from blindness and which would give an end to inequalities. Thus , if education is that much important , important for abandoning inequalities , how can we let inequalities in education ? Seeing the real picture is the most significant right for each of us. How can we let this happen? How can we learn we are all nothing but identical who share breathing in the same earth by seeing inequalities in the initial place we learn to share , to see unity , to feel what is helping ? We created and invented plenty of glorious things , we built a life which is our own production but still , we are as ignorant as the first mankind owing to not being able to exceed inequalities , not being aware of the fact that we live in the same boat and without any of us , life would not be a life for each of us but an entire nightmare.  Why cant we pass over our selfishness and make this world a total utopia? We show those inequalities in the news , we live moment by moment those inequalities but still it goes on and on. There is no slavery officially but in fact , there is still slavery. There has been a hierarchy since we are born but none of us could make an end to it. We could not make life itself a fairy tale in which good wins every time. However , the point is , we are the pioneers of those fairy tales and utopias and if we can imagine something , then we are able to do it so , what’s the point for letting this nightmare continue?

Why my peers has to work on the streets by selling handkerchiefs but not going to schools? Why my peers has to walk 5 km in the middle of the winter with plastic slippers to reach their school (if you can call those “schools”)? Why little children in India has to spend their whole life time on a street which is full of dirt 1 meter in width by sewing earning one dollar in a week? Those who had qualified education are at the top of the hierarchy knowing how to manipulate the ignorance and those who had no chance to have qualified education are the ones who work in cocoa farms for upper classes to drink coffee by being ill and exhausted. Only real education and qualified questioning can “Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery, none but ourselves can free our minds!” as Bob Marley says.
An Interview with a lecturer , Erkut Deral , from my old high school Nişantaşı Işık:

Education can not be based on personal effort”

Erkut Deral , who was my philosophy, sociology and psychology teacher and personally my idol was the first and the last person I could consult as his view , knowledge and experiences are crucial for seeing the reality. I only asked him one question ; “ As an individual who experienced being a teacher in a state school and high school and a student in a state school , what would you say , what are the differences ?” and he went on without a pause ; “ There is no similarity between a state and a high school in Turkey , they are totally different. State schools are swamps , apparently they seem to educate students but indeed , they do not. All conditions are restricted. The education is mostly based on religious virtues which is a total disaster. The system is equal to the regions like Africa. I’ve been teaching for 22 years and I quit my job in state school as soon as possible as the other teachers do when they go to the east regions. There is currently illiterate students who literally and legally are graduated from high schools. The mass of ignorant people are for voting , sheep to pursue the shepherd. They are creating those ignorant mass for turning them into voting machines and fix this system is impossible as it’s too expensive and the government is not willing so. There has to be a revolution in education just like Finland did ; destroying the current system and creating the best.  In the east regions , there are no suitable working conditions for teachers , they are the most primitive ones. Thus , they try to escape from there as soon as possible as I did once and the government does not force them to stay.  They are not educating people legally. It is accepting the despair and trying to make a balance. Parents can mention about their children as ;” He does not like reading , he does not like educating.” as if it is like a hobby or something. Education can not be a choice but obligation.  Once upon a time when I was a student , there was village institutions and the teacher who works in those institutions were the people at the top. Then , they were banned as they were raising communists. Now , Imams are the ones who lead the village. We were not learning religion during the school times. It was a private thing but now it’s obligatory.

The system in Turkey is really mass compared to other countries. It is full of theorical issues based on memorizing but in other countries it’s mostly based on questioning and giving the basic information about positive sciences.

I wanted to be an intellectual , nobody forced me to be , it was my wish but as I said , education can not be a choice.”

An Interview with classmates and self-observations:

I asked three of my classmates who are Emrecan Topaloglu , Berivan Kizilocak and Ezgi Bingul what were the differences they observed through their experiences in their state high schools and they generally gave the common answers ; “ Inadequacy of English classes and labs, our teacher who supposed to teach us German , did not show up in the 10th grade and taught us nothing but just to say our names , ages and nationalities in the following years. Even the stoves were not working. Mostly their general director in their schools were religion teachers and saying ; “Namaz is obligatory.” Ezgi says ; “ They are supposed to tell us religions but instead they were forcing us mentally.” As they assert , they had no sport saloon , no equipment in art classes , they were sharing one desk with 2 , their lesson section were less , mine was 8 and their was 6 , teachers were barely coming to lessons , they could pass the lesson by bribe , activities were restricted , the hierarchy in social status was obvious.

However , in my high school , our lectures were in English except geography and history. The system was not based on mass education or memorizing , it was purely about critical thinking. Each year , our school arranged at least 10 times travelling to abroad. We were able to get TOEFL or IELTS as the English classes were really qualified. In 9th grade we read the original version of Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare so , we were able to read and write in old English as well. In 12th grade we were able to read Goethe’s Faust in German and able to pass A2 and B1 proficiency exams. We were doing our lessons on books but next generation was to follow the lessons from their Ipads and so do the teachers. We were at most 20 students in each class but my sister , when she went to state school from first grade to 5th , the number of the students were 92 in her class and she says I could not count or write till the end of the 4th class. When she changed her school and went to a college , she was doing great with all classes including German and English. Our religion teacher would tell us all religions at the same time to see a whole picture but not forcing , again making us to question “Why?” and none of us who were not believing was punished or insulted for it. I guess my school was a rebellion against the current system which creates the inequalities obvious. When I went to “Dershane” which is based on preparing the students for the university entrance exam as a reinforcement , there were plenty of students who came from state schools and a few who were from private. Till that day , I realized that I was with same people from same status and never realized that opportunity could make such a difference. I tried to become friends with them and I became aware of the fact that ; they did not know nothing. My world was completely different from them. The only issue I could share with them was the coming exam , that’s all. Owing to my parents’ acquisition , I became an intellectual not due to my intelligence or any other thing but money and this hurt me really deeply that’s why I chose this subject , I chose it to make people hear my voice of rebellion against any inequality but firstly ; education.

Center For Demography and Ecology

The University of Wisconsin – Madison

On Boudon’s Model of Social Mobility

Robert M. Hauser

Working Paper 75-12

According to Boudon (n.d) An individual cannot create a job just because he wants it but he can go to college if he wants to , provided he is qualified!” (p.21) and in my opinion it explains the whole picture.

We need uneducated people to do dirty and small issues like farming , cleaning the streets or maids who bring you tea while you work on your important upcoming case. As you are “precious” , you can not waste time by making yourself a cup of tea. In the essay of Robert M. Hauser this passage explains it more clearly ; “Another outcome of the process is pressure on middle class youth to stay in school longer , so they can continue to compete for high status jobs. This explains why middle class youth have higher aspiration than lower class youth , and it leads to a temporal spiral of ascending aspirations and attainments.”(p.g 2)

Thus ; socioeconomic background + school achievement affect ; aspiration + curriculum placement + college attendance. If you are not successful , then you would not have aspiration. If you are coming from a poor family , then you would lose your hope of a peaceful future. You would not go to school , not study and for the people who work hard and have money , the curriculum would be perfect but for those who have no aspiration and financial situation , the curriculum would be inadequate.
As a result ; social background academic achievement

educational outcomes

Boudon further states ; “ Inequality of educational opportunity is inevıtable so long as societies are strafied or have differentiated school systems.” (p.g 113)

Comparison between state and private schools based on the numbers of the equipments , desks and teachers:

(Numbers are collected from MEB’s official site)

Ceyhan Anatolian High School , Adana ; Number of Desks:22 Numbers of Teachers : 32 Numbers of Students : 532

Altınözü Anatolian High School , Hatay ; Number of Desks :10 Numbers of Teachers: 25 Numbers of Students : 507

Akşehir Selçuklu Anatolian High School , Konya ; Number of Desks :61 Numbers of Teachers : 58 Numbers of Students : 1055

Baykan Anatolian High School , Siirt ; Number of Desks :16 Numbers of Teachers : 30 Number of Students : 418

Lice Anatolian High School , Diyarbakır ; Number of Desks : 8 Number of Teachers: 15 Number of Students : 250

Cizre Merkez Anatolian High School , Şırnak ; Number of Desks : 32 Number of Teachers : 80 Number of Students : 2469

Boyabat Şehit Ersoy Gürsu Anatolian High School , Sinop ; Number of Desks : 24 Number of Teachers : 22 Number of Students : 376

Yıldırım Beyazıt Anatolian High School , Ankara ; Number of Desks : 37 Number of Teachers : 55 Number of Students : 807 Number of laboratories : 2 Studio for Arts : 0 Computer Rooms : 1

Aliağa Barboros Anatolian High School , İzmir ; Number of Desks : 21 Number of Teachers : 34 Number of Students : 533

Kabataş Erkek Anatolian High School , İstanbul ; Number of Desks : 30 Number of Teachers :67 Number of Students : 847

Kadkıköy Anatolian High School , İstanbul ; Number of Desks : 50 Number of Teachers : 96 Number of Students : 1465
These are a few examples. In their whole primary school life , students study really hard to be accepted to those above schools and the result for their afford is quite dissapointing. In MEB’s offical pages , they did not put the numbers of desks , teachers and students for private schools but I can say an approximate number for my own high school , we were like 250 students and had just for the English department at least 10 teachers , more than the half were American , Irish and English , 20 students in a class at most , sport saloons with pools , conference and cinema saloons , one floor that is separated just for labs and many of my teachers made their Doctorals. If my parents could not afford the tuition fees , I would be one of those students above.

However in Germany , you can barely find private schools , hospitals etc. They are all free for everyone with the same qualifications so , students would go to schools which are the nearest ones to their homes. In Turkey , a new law had upcame. Students must go to the schools which are the nearest ones. They may be Imam Hatibs in which education is based on religion and first and foremost the qualifications among schools in Turkey is enourmous. Thus , the gap will grow faster from now on.
Inequalities In Turkey

A General Look at Permanent Inequalities

June 2010

Bosphorus University – Social Politics Form

Açık Toplum Foundation
Yrd. Doç. Dr. Ayşen Candaş

Prof. Dr. Ayşe Buğra

Volkan Yılmaz
Sevda Günseli
Dr. Burcu Yakut Çakar

Inequalities in Education in Turkey , Pages 104-142

The Level of Education and Enrollment :

According to OECD , the approximate years that a student goes to school is 6 , in Greece it is 10 and in Germany it is 13. Thus , Turkey is nearly at the bottom of the list.

Enrollment in Primary and Secondary School :

As for the statics made by MEB 2009-2010, %2 of children are still can not attend primary schools and it leads a big inequality issue. According to research ; since 1997-1998 to 2009-2010 the enrollment ratio in primary school for girls increased 19 points. It is again pleasing but not enough as the %2 still illiterate and enrollment ratios are not enough as we have to look at graduate ratios.

In 2009-2010 the net ratio for secondary schools are ; %65,5 (boys) and %62 (girls). This ratio leads us to question the gender discriminartion between girls and boy.

Source : MEB, 2010, Millî Eğitim İstatistikleri, Örgün Eğitim 2009-2010, p.g1

Leaving the School , p.g 114 :

According to the research named Türkiye’de İlkoğretim Okullarında Okulu Terk ve İzlenmesi ile Önlenmesine Yönelik Politikalar made by Anne Çocuk Eğitim Vakfı (AÇEV), Kadın Adayları Destekleme ve Eğitme Derneği (KADER) ve Eğitim Reformu Girişimi (ERG) , between 1999-2005 there are 436.614 children who left the primary school and the reasons were they had to work (%30) , their parents did not let them to go (%23) , they could not afford the tuition fees (%20) and more than half the boys were contributing to income. %83,5 of the mother of those children had had no education in their entire lives. % 51,9 of the children , who left school during secondary school years , speaks another language at home. All of those ratios show us that those families from low class with low level of education , lack of benefit primary , were exposed to cultural and social inequalities. In other words , all of them live in poverty. The ratio for leaving secondary schools are quite more than primary school ratios as secondary school education is not obligatory.

Obstacles in front of Education p.g 121:

Income

According to the datas from 2003, %20 of who earns the most are at least graduated from high school and %20 who earns the least the ratio decreases to %5 who graduated from high school and families who can provide one of their children’s education prefer to afford the tuition fees of the boy instead of the gir and this leads us to the fact that there is still a perception of “The girl must stay at home , she does not need education.”

Gender Discrimination p.g123-124

In recent years , there is an increase in the enrollment of girls but for the secondary school ratios , the problems of gender discrimination show itself again. As I stated in the previous paragraph , if the family can afford one their children’s educational fees , they choose the boy and the girl stays at home , helping the mother and taking care of her brother and sisters.In addition , if parent’s educational level is low , then they are more likely to think boys are superior. According to the research “Eğitim Reformu Girişimi’nin Eğitimde Eşitlik “ , it indicates ; “ In a family with an annual benefit of 5000 TL, father graduated from primary school and an illeterate mother , the ratio for a girl to go to secondary school is approximately %1.

Child Labour in Turkey by Graphics :

United States Department of Labor , Moderate Advancement”

According to the research ;

Girls are trafficked into Turkey primarily from ex-Soviet countries for commercial sexual exploitation.

There are also reports that children are recruited by Kurdish militant groups that have been fighting in Turkey for nearly three decades.

The Syrian Conflict has resulted in hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees relocating to Turkey, some in government camps principally along the southern border and some moving into urban areas throughout Turkey. Due to their high level of vulnerability, some refugee children in urban areas are subject to a range of abuses including child labor, sexual exploitation, and trafficking. Some reports indicate that Syrian girls are sold into marriages.

International Labour Organization ; Facts and Figures :

  • Global number of children in child labour has declined by one third since 2000, from 246 million to 168 million children. More than half of them, 85 million, are in hazardous work (down from 171 million in 2000).
  • Asia and the Pacific still has the largest numbers (almost 78 million or 9.3% of child population), but Sub-Saharan Africa continues to be the region with the highest incidence of child labour (59 million, over 21%).
  • There are 13 million (8.8%) of children in child labour in Latin America and the Caribbean and in the Middle East and North Africa there are 9.2 million (8.4%).
  • Agriculture remains by far the most important sector where child labourers can be found (98 million, or 59%), but the problems are not negligible in services (54 million) and industry (12 million) – mostly in the informal economy.
  • Child labour among girls fell by 40% since 2000, compared to 25% for boys.
  • Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

  • Serdar M. Degirmencioglu, Hakan Acar and Yüksel Baykara Acar

P.K. 18, Goztepe, Istanbul, Turkey

By the mid-1990s, almost one of ten children were working. More specifically, the 1994 Child Labour Survey indicated that of the 11.9 million children between six and 14 years of age, 1.07 million were working (Duyan, 2005).

44.7% of employed children engaged in agricultural sector

44.7% (399 thousand persons) of total employed children engaged in agricultural sector, 24.3% (217 thousand persons) of children engaged in industry and 31% (277 thousand persons) of children engaged in services. Employment in agriculture increased by 8.1 percentage point while that of industry decreased by 6.6 percentage point and services decreased by 1.5 percentage point compared to the results of the 2006.

52.6% (470 thousand persons) of total employed children worked as regular or casual employee, 46.2% (413 thousand persons) of total employed children worked as unpaid family worker.

The research made by Eğitim Sen , Seasonal Agricultural Children Laborers ,2007 :

In Diyarbakır, Batman, Adana, Adıyaman, Şanlıurfa and Gaziantep currently there are 23,683

children laborers in seasonal agriculture and they are not able to go 70 days in a year and 70 days in a year is an enourmous number as it wil cause to decrease the qualification of the education and making them disadvantaged from the first row.

Mother Tongue in Education:

Children who can not speak Turkish properly confront a disadvantage when they enter the school ; everything is in Turkish. Thus , it leads them to fail in their lessons.

In addition to those facts as for the research (p.g 134) , it asserts that Roman children are disadvantaged compared to Turkish childre. In the research of Uluslararası Azınlık Hakları Grubu , it states that owing to their poverty , children leave their schools to contribute to the house income. Moreover , obligatory religion lessons are another fact for inequalities in education. The education is mostly based on Sunni perceptions so , it creates an inequality for Alaouites and citizens who are Cristians and Jews confront same difficulties as well. Furthermore , there inequalities for disable people as well. According to Türkiye Özürlüler Araştırması , in 2002 the total illiterate percentage was 12,9 and for disabled citizens it was 36,3. %84,2 graduated from primary school , left during the primary school or never went to school in their entire life times.Besides , the research also adds that (p.g 136) in school books there are discriminative expressions for the people whose ethnic roots are Kurdish , Circassian , Laz , Alaouite , Armenian , Rum , Syrian and Arab and also discriminative expressions about gender.

Fact Sheet: Outcomes for Young, Black Men

–  54% of African Americans graduate from high school, compared to more than three quarters of white

and Asian students.

–  Nationally, African American male students in grades K-12 were nearly 2½ times as likely to be suspended from school in 2000 as white students.

–  In 2007, nearly 6.2 million young people were high school dropouts. Every student who does not complete high school costs our society an estimated $260,000 in lost earnings, taxes, and productivity.

–  On average, African American twelfth-grade students read at the same level as white

eighth-grade students.

–  The twelfth-grade reading scores of African American males were significantly lower than

those for men and women across every other racial and ethnic group.

–  Only 14% of African American eighth graders score at or above the proficient level. These results reveal that millions of young people cannot understand or evaluate text, provide relevant details, or support inferences about the written documents they read.

Literacy Facts and Stats

A great number of children and adults struggle with reading.

Thirty-three percent of 4th grade public school students are at or below the “Basic” level on the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reading tests. Twenty-six percent of 8th grade public school students performed at or below the “Basic” level on the NAEP reading test (NCES, 2009).

Among 4th graders, 53 percent of African American students, 52 percent of Hispanic students, and 48 percent of American Indian students scored below the “Basic” level on the NAEP reading test. Among 8th graders, 44 percent of African American students, 41 percent of Hispanic students, and 37 percent of American Indian students scored below the “Basic” level on the NAEP reading test (NCES, 2009).

Forty-nine percent of 4th graders eligible for free and reduced-price meals finished below “Basic” on the NAEP reading test. Forty percent of 8th graders eligible for free and reduced-price meals scored below “Basic” on the NAEP reading test (NCES, 2009).

The number of high school seniors who read at or above “Proficient” has been declining since 1992, according to the NAEP reading test (NCES, 2002).

Literacy and Life Outcomes

Fewer than half of African American men graduate from high school (Editorial Projects in Education, 2008).

African American men make up only 5% of the college population, yet they make up 40% of the prison population (Lewis, S. et al., 2010; West, H.C., 2009).

The unemployment rate is twice as high for African American men as it is for White men (Lewis, S. et al., 2010; West, H.C., 2009).

African American adolescents and young adults are 8 times more likely to be victims of homicide than White people in the same age group (U.S. Bureau of Labor, 2010).

Chocolate and Slavery:

Child Labor in Cote d’Ivoire

TED Case Studies

Number 664, 2002

by Samlanchith Chanthavong

Human Trafficking and Slavery in General

In 1994, the United Nations General Assembly defined human trafficking as “the illegal and clandestine movement of persons across national and international borders. . . With the end goal of forcing women and children into. . .Economically oppressive and exploitative situations for profit…”(UNICEF). Although most people may not be aware that in the 21st century slavery still exists, reports declare that the number of slaves at present is the highest it has ever been (Free the Slaves). Presently, about 700,000 children and women are trafficked around the world annually. The UN says that profits for this trafficking amount to approximately $7 billion a year (Anti-Slavery International).

Slavery, the Cote d’Ivoire, and the Rest of West Africa

A UNICEF study reports that 200,000 children are trafficked yearly in West and Central Africa. The trafficking occurs across many countries including Cameroon, Nigeria, and Ghana. Some countries are mere transit points, while others are either the suppliers or receivers of the children (Salah, p. 3).

Conclusion :

Education is the unique way of abolishing hierarchy. Goverment’s due is to facilitate the acces to education and prohibiting the convection of inequalities to next generations. The public must provide an egalitarian and liberal environment by removing issues like ethnic , socio-economic , gender  and mother tongue. With the question of to what extent the public is successfull in raising equal and free individuals numbers are obtained and observed and as a result ; the average year is 6 in Turkey going to school  , between 1997-2007 literacy rate increased about 3,7 points , enrollment in pre-school ratios went up from %13 to %20 between 2005-2010 , enrollment in primary school ratios went up more than 13 points (for girls only it’s 19 points) , nonattendance ratios which are mora than 20 days went up from 3,2 (2008-2009 to 4,3 (2009-2010) , %6 of the children who are supposed to go to primary school are not able to graduate from a primary school , enrollment in secondary school ratio went up 27 points between 1997-2010 , enrollment ratios among OECD countries between 15-19 ages Turkey is at the bottom , girls stay behind 5 points compared to boys enrollment in secondary school , South-eastern Anatolia is at the worst situation which is below the average enrollment in primary school ratios in Turkey , just in Diyarbakır, Batman, Adana, Adıyaman, Şanlıurfa and  Gaziantep there are 23,683 seasonal agricultural child labourer , the worst regions in success in education are the South-eastern and East Anatolia , mother tongue , ethnic roots , religions are the discriminative facts in education and public’s educational expense for education is 2,9 in 2006 and it’s again the worst among OECD countries.

During the course of Human Nature 103 , we were asked a question ; “ Is there a human nature or not?” I was at the side who said “No” to this . Before that , I believed in the idea of we are nothing but cruel and selfish and this life has no meaning but at the moment , I realized that I was discriminating mankind by saying “We are selfish.”. If we believe in it , life will continue as a chaos with it’s inequalities. If we accept this , then inequalities would be inevitable. However , if only we could see ourselves as identicals , then there would be no sorrows or tears. Indeed , the point is to be aware of equality at first. We do need each other. We do need love. If we can undertand this reality , then there would be no inequalities. That’s the soulution. I would like to end my words with a quotation from Michael Jackson ; “ Let us dream of tomorrow where we can truly love from the soul, and know love as the ultimate truth at the heart of all creation.”

Sources:

Adult and Youth Literacy.(September 2012 , No.20) Unesco Institute for Statics

Bakış, O., Levent, H., İnsel, A., Polat, S. (2009). Türkiye’de Eğitime Erişimin Belirleyicileri, Eğitim Reformu Girişimi, İstanbul.

Bali, R. N. (1998) “Resmi İdeoloji ve Gayrimüslim Yurttaşlar,” Birikim, Ocak/Şubat 1998 Sayı 105-106.

Candaş , A. , & Buğra , A., & Yılmaz V. , & Günseli S. ,& Çakar B.Y. (2010) .TÜRKİYE’DE EŞİTSİZLİKLER: KALICI EŞİTSİZLİKLERE GENEL BİR BAKIŞ .Boğaziçi Üniversitesi Sosyal Politika Forumu

Chanthavong S. (2002)Chocolate and Slavery:Child Labor in Cote d’Ivoire.Ted Case Studies

Değirmencioğlu S. M. , & Acar H. , & Acar B.Y.(n.d.) Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey. Göztepe , Istanbul , Turkey.

EFA, 2009, Overcoming Inequality Why Governance Matters

Farkas G. Racial Disparities and Discrimination in Education: What do We know, How Do We know It , and What Do We Need to Know?. The Pennsylvania State University.

Groth H.,& Sousa-Poza A.(2012) Population Dynamics in Muslim Countries. London New York: Springer Heidelberg Dordrecht

Hauser M. R.On Boudon’s Model of Social Mobility. The University of Wisconsin,Madison

Lewis, S. et al. (2010).  A call for change:  The social and educational factors contributing to the outcomes of Black males in urban schools.  Washington, D.C.:  The Council of the Great City Schools.

Libraries, Literacy, and African American Male Youth , Module 1: Literacy and Life Outcomes

MEB, 2010, Millî Eğitim İstatistikleri, Örgün Eğitim 2009-2010

National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). Institute of Education Sciences.

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Reading is Fundamental.(n.d) Literacy Facts and Stats

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Turkish Statistical Institute. Child Labour Force Survey , 2012. 02 April 2013

Tüik’ten okur yazar orantılarının ayrıntılı raporu.T24

Türkite İstatistik Kurumu. İstatistiklerle Kadın , 201. Mart 2014

Buse Beril Durdurak

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İnequalities in Education

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Inequalities in education throughout the world :

The world we live in has become a competition in which the weak dies or serves and the rich lives in welfare. The system we created is mostly based on saving the best for the richest and giving the rest for the others who are the servers. When I see a child on the street trying to sell some handkerchief for his school needs , I ask myself why am I the one who is lucky? I believe there is no problem that cannot be solved and among these billions of inequalities at least some of them must be solved by now right away and one of them is in my opinion is education. Thus , I would make a detailed research on this issue by comparing other countries with Turkey based on the Internet and some books, then I’ll try to show the possible effects, consequences and solutions. I would go to private and state schools to make an interview with the students and teachers and take photographs to make it concrete.

Education is like breathing in today’s world. Education is equal to money and money equals to live and every human being has a right to live no matter what their finance is. I do not want any other individual saying ; “ If could continue going to school I could be this I achieve this.”. etc. Every dream is a golden as we are linked to life by our dreams and bringing some obstacles on them is equal to murder some one.

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Nelson Mandela

NELSON MANDELA

NELSON MANDELA

NELSON MANDELA

18 July 1918-5 December 2013

“There is no easy walk to freedom anywhere, and many of us will have to pass through the valley of the shadow of death again and again before we reach the mountaintop of our desires.”

Briefly , Nelson Mandela was the first president of South Africa who was anti apartheid revolutionary and was prisoned for 27 years , then later released and devoted his life for the struggle of inequality , racism , poverty. He studied law in Fort Hare University and the University of Witwatersrand , influenced by Marxism , Lenin , Engels , Stalin , Zeodong .He was a vocal supporter of the British war effort when the Second World War broke out. On 30 July 1952, Mandela was arrested under the Suppression of Communism Act .After his release he focused on poverty and AIDS. He became “The Father of the Nation”.

“Courageous people do not fear forgiving, for the sake of peace.”

He believed all African people must be independent.

“We, the people of South Africa, declare for all our country and the world to know:

That South Africa belongs to all who live in it, black and white, and that no government can justly claim authority unless it is based on the will of the people.”

Umkhonto we Sizwe

Umkhonto we Sizwe meaning; “The Spear of the Nation”, was the military wing of the African National Congress. “The ANC deems itself a force of national liberation in the post-apartheid era; it officially defines its agenda as the National Democratic Revolution.” (Wikipedia)They committed violence to achieve their aims as it was thought violence was necessity (Church Street Bombing and the Magoo’s Bar bombing). and then it’s members became a minority while Nelson Mandela was in fashion as he was doing those protests by vocally not violently.

National Assembly
Election year # of

overall votes

 % of

overall vote

# of

overall seats won

+/–
2014NELSON MANDELA 11,436,921 62.15 249 / 400 15
2009 11,650,748 65.90 264 / 400 15
2004 10,880,915 69.69 279 / 400 13
1999 10,601,330 66.35 266 / 400 14
1994 12,237,655 62.65 252 / 400

NELSON MANDELA

GINI COEFFICIENT :

Gini coefficient is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation’s residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality.

GINI INDEX OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES:

From a scientific research: Inequality Trends in South Africa

   As for the Gini coefficient , South Africa is most unequal country in the world. Much of the country’s inequality stems from apartheid’s effect on different races, but other factors also play important roles. Inequality in South Africa is highly correlated with race. The system of apartheid, instituted from 1948-1994, determined economic possibilities and expectations based on race, contributing deeply to the unequal society that exists today.

The National Party instituted apartheid in South Africa starting in 1948. It codified laws mandating racial categorization and exclusion. In particular, all non-whites were excluded not only from the political system, but also from most respectable jobs and good education. Specifically, apartheid aimed to physically separate the races, which was difficult to carry out in practice. Furthermore, the apartheid government concerned itself greatly with the welfare of the white population, hoping to improve the standing of poor whites As a result, poor people of European background greatly benefited from apartheid, as they were able to move into higher classes, bypassing well-educated non-whites.

As can be seen in the table to the above (taken from Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa), the Gini coefficient for the white population in 1975 stood at a relatively low .36, signifying the success of the apartheid government in bolstering the position of the poorer members of the white community.

After 1975, the tendency toward increasing intra-racial equality reversed. As can been seen in the table to the right (also from Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa), recent decades have seen a dramatic increase in inequality within racial groups. In the mid 1970s, the apartheid regime began to loosen its restrictions, allowing some educated non-whites to take higher-level jobs. Also important was the shifting labor market. Jobs requiring little education, particularly in mining, began to diminish after 1975. Without jobs or a solid education to use in the evolving labor force, many non-whites were left without work. These factors, among others, allowed for the increase of inequality within races, even as overall disparities in South Africa remained similar to what they had been.

With the end of apartheid in 1994, the chances for mobility increased. As a result, levels of inequality within all racial groups are slowly beginning to reflect the national average. Indeed, the end of apartheid has given many educated non-whites the opportunity (through dismantling apartheid laws) and assistance (through affirmative action) to obtain professional jobs. However, the vast majority of the black population still suffers severely from lack of marketable skills. Such discrepancies will continue to be felt in the next generation, as levels of education vary tremendously among social classes.

When government transfers are taken into account, the Gini index of South Africa is significantly reduced. As Race, Class, and Inequality in South Africa states, the Gini coefficient drops to about 0.50 when taxes and cash transfers are taken into account, and are reduced even further, to about 0.44 (a figure similar to that of the United States), when public social spending is added.

Source: http://www.geocurrents.info/economic-geography/inequality-trends-in-south-africa#ixzz3JvHGMIKs

Apartheid System :

Apartheid (which is an Afrikaans word meaning “apartness”) was a political and social system in South Africa while it was under white minority rule (meaning white people ruled the country, even though there were not as many of them as there were black people). This was in use in the 20th century, from 1948 to 1994. The system of apartheid in South Africa was banned in 1994. The last president under apartheid was Frederick Willem de Klerk .After this, Nelson Mandela became the first black president.

The aim of apartheid was to separate the people of South Africa into small independent nations. The black ones were called Bantustans. The National Party government did not want to spend a lot of money on this project. Also, they wanted to keep the majority of South Africa’s land for white people, especially the richest places, like the gold mines ofJohannesburg.

They wanted black men to work in these mines for little money but their families had to live far away.

The government separated mixed communities and forcibly moved many people. Many laws were made, for example: people of different races were not allowed to mary each other; black people could not own land in white areas or vote. (Wikipedia)

List of apartheid laws:

Those I listed down are a minority of the listed. There were pages of laws but I picked some.

Sexual apartheid

These laws were repealed by the Immorality and Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act, 1985.

Land tenure and geographic segregation

The Group Areas Act, 1950 (re-enacted in 1957 and 1966) divided urban areas into “group areas” in which ownership and residence was restricted to certain population groups.

Segregation in education

Bantu Education Act, 1953

The Bantu Education Act, 1953 (Act No. 47 of 1953; later renamed the Black Education Act, 1953) was a segregation law which legalised several aspects of the apartheid system. Its major provision was enforcing racially separated educational facilities.

Bantustan

A Bantustan (also known as a Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state, or simply homeland) was a territory set aside for South Africa’s black inhabitants during apartheid.

Causes of post-apartheid inequality

Unemployment

South Africa has extremely high unemployment rates. The overall unemployment rate was 26% in 2004, but historically disadvantaged groups like rural populations, women, and blacks experience higher rates of unemployment. Unemployment is mainly concentrated among unskilled blacks, who comprise 90% of the unemployed. The ANC government has pledged to cut overall unemployment to 14% by 2014, but so far, their efforts have not caused dramatic drops in unemployment. Much of the high unemployment rate is due to the declining manufacturing industry. The unemployment rate for black South Africans has increased from 23% in 1991 to 48% in 2002. Unemployment continues to rise despite robust economic growth, suggesting structural factors that may be constraining the labor market.

I do not deny that I planned sabotage. I did not plan it in a spirit of recklessness nor because I have any love of violence. I planned it as a result of a calm and sober assessment of the political situation that had arisen after many years of tyranny, exploitation and oppression of my people by the whites.

Nelson Mandela

Source : http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid_in_South_Africa

African American Impact

November 13, 2007

UNC study shows African Americans add $44.7 billion to state’s economy

Chapel Hill — North Carolina’s growing African American population contributes more than $44.7 billion to the state’s economy through its purchases and taxes – $22,272 per black resident – while costing the state budget $4.5 billion – or $2,498 per black resident – for health care, education and corrections, according to a new report by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

If recent growth trends continue, the total economic impact of black spending in the state could increase to $60 billion by 2009.

Among the findings of the study, which used 2004 and 2005 data for analysis:

North Carolina’s African American population totaled 1.8 million, or 21.8 percent of the state’s total population, and accounted for 20.4 percent of the state population growth from 1980 to 2004.

Forty-two percent of the African American population is concentrated in six metropolitan counties: Mecklenburg, Wake, Guilford, Cumberland, Durham and Forsyth.

The state’s African American population is substantially younger (median age 32) than the state’s white population (median age 39). African Americans are less likely than whites to live in nuclear families (41.1 percent versus 70.1 percent) and more likely to live in single-parent families (42 percent versus 11 percent).

African American households (average size 3.3 persons) tend to be larger than white households (average size 3.0 persons). African Americans accounted for 29.3 percent of the state’s overall workforce increase between 1995 and 2005, with two sectors – education and health services (118,522) and leisure and hospitality services (71,034) – absorbing the largest increases of workers.

The median education level for both blacks and whites is a high-school diploma. However, a $19,570 difference exists between the two groups in median household income and an $11,970 difference exists in per-capita income.

Racial disparities in earnings and income are due primarily to the fact that blacks are more likely than whites to be concentrated in low-paying occupations within North Carolina industries.

The share of African Americans incarcerated in North Carolina (59.4 percent of all people incarcerated in the state) is nearly three times their share of the state’s total population (21.8 percent).

African Americans annually pay $3.8 billion in state and local taxes (direct and indirect), while costing state and local budgets about $4.5 billion annually for K-12 education ($2.7 billion), health care ($1.3 billion), and corrections ($453 million), for a net cost to the state of about $759 million, or approximately $420 per resident after their tax contributions are considered. –

Source: http://www.kenan-flagler.unc.edu/kenan-institute/publications/2007-african-american

  • ANC POWER:

“If this argument is correct, it predicts a bleak future for South Africa. In 1990 42 percent of the population lived in poverty.1 In 1991 South Africa had a Gini co-efficient, which measures the extent of income inequality, of 0.68, the highest in a group of 36 developing countries. That same year the poorest 40 percent of households earned 4 percent of national income, while the richest 10 percent received more than half.2 In 1995 unemployment among Africans was calculated to be 37 percent – almost certainly an underestimate.3

The appalling economic plight of the black majority was summed up recently by the Socialist Workers Organisation of South Africa:

Only one out of five African households have running water BUT every white household has running water.

One quarter of all African households get less than R300 a month. Two thirds get less than the breadline – R900 a month. BUT two thirds of white households get more than R2000 a month.

Two thirds of African children and half of Coloured children live in overcrowded houses BUT only 1 out of 100 white children live in overcrowded conditions.

Less than half of African kids live in a proper brick house. The rest live in shacks or huts BUT most white children live in a brick house.4

Leaving in place such poverty and inequality would help to perpetuate the desperation and misery that have produced levels of violence, both political and criminal, making South Africa one of the most dangerous societies in the world. It would also, over time, undermine the political achievements of the ANC led mass movement. To see whether such a grim outcome is inevitable we need, in the first instance, to consider the process that brought about the triumph of April 1994 in the first place.”

( http://pubs.socialistreviewindex.org.uk/isj70/safrica.htm)

 

 

The test of office

The ANC finally crossed the portals of state power in May 1994. It could claim a popular mandate arising from its overwhelming electoral victory (see Table 1). Thanks to this triumph, it not only had a large majority in the National Assembly, but controlled seven of the nine provincial governments set up under the new constitution.

TABLE 1: Results of the Elections of 26-29 April 1994

Party                             Percentage of Vote Seats

African National Congress               62.50           252

National Party                         20.39           82

Inkatha Freedom Party                   10.54           43

Freedom Front                           2.17             9

Democratic Party                         1.73             7

Pan-Africanist Congress                 1.25             5

African Christian Democratic Party       0.45             2

[Source: A. Reynolds, (ed), Elections ’94 South Africa (London, 1994)]

The ANC had campaigned on the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), which set out a number of specific policy objectives intended to advance both ‘social upliftment’ and ‘economic development’ over the following five years. These included:

building one million houses;

creating 300,000 to 500,000 non-farm jobs a year;

redistributing 30 percent of agricultural land; providing clean drinking water for the 12 million people currently denied access to it;

introducing adequate sanitation for the 21 million people without it;

supplying electricity to 19,000 black schools, 4,000 clinics, and two thirds of homes, all then without it;

redressing the imbalance in access to telephone lines – one line for 100 blacks, 60 for 100 whites;

a ten year transition to compulsory schooling;

class sizes to be no more than 40 by the year 2000.”

More for Nelson Mandela :

Nelson Mandela (top row, second from left) on the steps of Wits University. Image courtesy Andrew Sam

Entering politics:

-He only joined the African National Congress in 1944 when he helped to form the ANC Youth League.

-In 1952 he was chosen at the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance Campaign with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy.

-This campaign of civil disobedience against six unjust laws was a joint programme between the ANC and the South African Indian Congress. He and 19 others were charged under the Suppression of Communism Act for their part in the campaign and sentenced to nine months hard labour, suspended for two years.

Nelson Mandela on the roof of Kholvad House in 1953. Image courtesy of the A Kathrada Foundation

The Treason Trial

Nelson Mandela was arrested in a countrywide police swoop on 5 December 1955, which led to the 1956 Treason Trial. Men and women of all races found themselves in the dock in the marathon trial that only ended when the last 28 accused, including Mandela were acquitted on 29 March 1961.

-On 11 January 1962, using the adopted name David Motsamayi, Nelson Mandela secretly left South Africa. He travelled around Africa and visited England to gain support for the armed struggle. He received military training in Morocco and Ethiopia and returned to South Africa in July 1962.

-On 9 October 1963 Nelson Mandela joined ten others on trial for sabotage in what became known as the Rivonia Trial. While facing the death penalty his words to the court at the end of his famous ‘Speech from the Dock’ on 20 April 1964 became immortalised:

“I have fought against white domination , and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. B8ut if needs be , it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die.”

466/64 is one of Mandela’s prisoner numbers

Release from prison

On 12 August 1988 he was taken to hospital where he was diagnosed with tuberculosis.

President

On 10 May 1994 he was inaugurated South Africa’s first democratically elected President.

Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. Despite terrible provocation, he never answered racism with racism. His life is an inspiration to all who are oppressed and deprived; and to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation.

He died at his home in Johannesburg on 5 December 2013.

Conclusion:

Behind bars he continued to influence people. A life itself may seem meaningless as we are thrown out here. There is a limited time that we must fulfill but how to fill it , it’s your choice.

When I was a kid , I thought that there was only one country throughout the world ; Turkey and one language ; Turkish. I grew up and came to acknowledge that there are thousand of ethnics but never separated them from us , never thought that they were completely different from us. They were just human beings with a bit different appearance , language and region but that’s it but years has passed and I’m aware of how discrimination is a common sense between mankind. However eventually , we come to know that we are all identical and nothing can change it.

Through your life path , you can go 2 ways ; you may achieve to be a good person and make yourself unforgettable or you may achieve to be a bad person and make yourself unforgettable and this man chose to signify a pure goodness , felt the glory of seeing another person’s smiling owing to him. Nothing in this world can make you utterly happy but helping and sharing.

I wish that this man and any person like him would lead us a way of pure love where evil can not find us. I would love to end my words with Michael Jackson’s words that would clarify my sentences ; “ Let us dream of tomorrow where we can truly love from the soul and know love as the ultimate truth at the heart of all creation.”

Let’s heal the world..

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The two baby family makes a comeback!

The essentials of being a family

“In every conceivable manner , the family is link to our past a bridge to our future.” stresses Alex Haley the importance of being a real family. The family is one of nature’s masterpiece and protecting this earlier heaven is highly crucial to our life path ; it makes a huge impact on who we are as the all problems, our most inner weak spots are caused through what we live our parents. They are your strength and your weakness. They are the first supporters who would live with us through the bad and the good. They are the most valuable precious we can have in our limited time here and a path to our future second family ; your individual family as marrying somebody else and having children at the same way. The family is the nucleus of civilization ; we can be healthy in mind individuals owing to them. Thus , we always hear a therapist to his or her patient saying ; “Let’s talk about your childhood.” as it’s the golden key for very closed , scary door. The Effects of Family Structure and Family Process on the Psychological Well-Being of Children: From the Children’s Point of View by Christina D. Falci , a master student in U.S. had made a thesis on this subject; “The psychological well-being of children is important for several reasons. First, depressed mood impacts their social relations and their performance abilities (Compas and Hammen, 1994; Peterson et al., 1993). Second, psychological well-being in youth predicts future adult well-being. Depressive episodes in youth are likely to be chronic and recurrent throughout the life course (Robins et al., 1991). Finally, depressive moods early in life are an indicator of one’s potential for developing serious depressive disorders later in life (Gotlib et al., 1995).

Family StructureàFamily ProcessàChildren’s Psychological WellBeing

Background Variables and Individual Characteristics

Intact Families:

-Children have easy access to both biological parents.

-Parents in intact families are likely to have higher levels of psychological well-being when compared to parents in other family structures (Acock and Demo, 1994; Gove, 1972).

-Two-parent families generally have higher household incomes. The average family income for intact households is $49,491, as compared to $10,512 for never-married families and $20,262 for divorced families (Acock and Demo, 1994; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994).

Divorced and separated families:

-21% of children in one-parent families reported higher levels of paternal emotional support than children from intact families (Amato, 1987).

-Divorced households have lower levels of income

Never-Married Family:

-This family structure faces many of the same difficulties as divorced mothers in terms of lower levels of parental involvement, inconsistent discipline of children, lower levels of psychological well-being, and low income, but to a higher degree (Acock and Demo, 1994; Lempers, 1989; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). For example, they are the poorest and have the lowest levels of psychological well-being. In addition, continuously single mothers are often young, have little education (Acock and Demo, 1994), and their children may never have established relations with their biological father.

 

Stepfamilies and Mother-Partner Families:

Remarriage may make children feel rejected, because the newlywed couple wants time alone (Wallerstein, 1989). Children in stepfamilies spend less time with their biological parents and stepparents, and the time they do spend with their parents is less enjoyable than children from homes (Acock and Demo, 1994). In addition, the remarriage of a custodial parent may cause a residential move (Furstenberg, 1984; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). As a result, relations with the non-custodial parent can become strained because geographical proximity is important in maintaining the non-custodial parent-child relationship (Hetherington, 1989).

Demographic Variables

Race is also an important predictor of psychological well-being. Black adults score lower on measures of psychological well-being, such as happiness and life satisfaction (Cambell, 1981; Herzog et al., 1982; Thomas and Hughes, 1986; Veroff, Donovan and Kulka, 1981).

How divorces and today’s lifestyles impress the rates of child births:

In today’s world modern families are tend to have at most 2 children, it’s a trend among the society as to provide a qualified life for their children. Money is the key for a qualified life and to give them a well education. Thus , families are waiting for having a children till they are able to afford the expenses but the population of the new-born generation decreases in well developed countries so governments make some allowances for you like ;

Benefits you are entitled to when having a baby

Most families are entitled to cash from the government. But working out which benefits you qualify for and how to claim can often be complicated. As a result, millions of people are missing out. Take time to read this table carefully and make sure you’re not one of them.

Benefits for families

Child Benefit

Who is it for? Anyone responsible for a child. (If you or your partner has an individual income of over £50,000 a year, then the person with the highest income will have to pay back some or all of the Child Benefit in extra tax.)

Free prescriptions and NHS dental treatment

Who is it for? Pregnant women and new mums for the first 12 months. Prescriptions are free for everyone in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. NHS dental check-ups are free for everyone in Scotland.

Child Tax Credit

Who is it for? Anyone with responsibility for a child who normally lives with them. How much you get will depend on your household income. For example, if you have one child you will probably get tax credits if your income is not above £26,000, or £32,000 for two children.

You can still get tax credits even if your income is higher if you have childcare costs or your child has disabilities.

Between April 2013 and October 2017, Child Tax Credit is being gradually phased out and replaced by Universal Credit.

It’s from a site called https://www.moneyadviceservice.org.uk/en/articles/benefits-and-entitlements-to-claim-when-you-have-a-baby and the benefits are like pages and pages so these allowances persuade you to have a child especially persuades the people from other ethnics like Africa or India and this causes them to immigrate and make a huge contribution in the ratios of child births and also health issues has improved a lot that’s why the population seems to grow faster then the previous years. To summarize these , this is what the article “The two baby family makes a comeback” emphasizes on. Claims are ;

-2 child per woman since 1973

-having children in 30s and 40s

-46.8 per cent in England and Wales outside marriage

-highest total in 2010 since 1972

-Women in 1960s and 1970s who delayed childbearing to older ages are now catching up in terms of completed family size (2 children)

-Women have been encouraged to have more children with the help of the allowences

-Non-Uk born women and immigrants are more likely to be childbearing

-Fertility rates rose for all age groups except teenages.

To figure out if these claims are whether true or not I’ve searched for other web sites and they were all using the statics made by ONS so , claims are proven according to me which makes the huge difference between the previous article about the cancer but one that I could find through the article is ; the article says there are 3 million immigrants , around %70 in the population put down to immigrants , population has gone up 3.1 million but if we calculate it ; 3,1 . 70/100 = 2.17 , the result is not equal to 3.1.

RESEARCHES ON DIVORCES,MARRIAGES and CHILD BIRTHS In ENGLAND:

As for the http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/jan/28/divorce-rates-marriage-ons#data it verifies the articles assertions ; “The number of divorces in England and Wales have slightly increased- as shown by the latest figures out today from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) showing a total of 118,140 divorces in 2012 – an increase of 0.5% since 2011.

According to the release in 2012 – the latest year published – there were a total of 118,140 divorces, a slight increase on 2011, when there were 117,558. Of the 2012 total, almost half of these divorces occurred in the first 10 years of marriage, with divorces most likely to occur between the fourth and eighth wedding anniversary. The ONS release also shows that 71% of divorces were for first marriages.

The 2010 divorce figure was one of the first increases in several years and as we previously reported , was up 4.9% on the 2009 total.”

These divorces affect the future generations a lot as they’re frightened to get married or barely having a long-term happy marriage and at the end it alienates the future parents from childbearing. The ratios show us having two children is a trend but having more than 2 is barely seen except for the non developed regions and the given article for our assignment states these in a very clear way compared to the previous article “One in Four Britons will get Cancer”. There is no arithmetical inconsistency or any assumption that may be untrue of our knowledge. Claims are justified by the given numbers and for most of the other sites that I searched for has used the statics made by the ONS just like in the given article.   For instance one of them https://www.populationmatters.org/documents/family_sizes.pdf certifies the assertions made by the ONS as two baby family is again a trend among people ;

“-Over the last 70 years, the 2 child family has consistently been the most common family size and the proportion of mothers with 3 or more children has remained fairly constant.

-The Total Fertility Rate of women in their childbearing years has been increasing steeply over the last two decades to 2.00 in 2010. This total TFR of 2.00 is composed of the TFR of UK-born women (1.88 in 2010, up from 1.69 in 2004) and that of non-UK born women (stable at 2.45 in 2010).

-Due to the rise in the population of foreign-born women in the UK, their relative contribution has increased. A quarter of all births in 2010 were to mothers born outside the UK, up from 13.2 % in 1980.

-Women are increasingly delaying childbirth to older ages. In 2010, nearly half of all babies were born to mothers aged 30 and over.

-Women of all age groups apart from teenagers contributed to this increase in births, with the largest increases in fertility seen among older women aged 35-39 and 40+.

UK born women vs. Non-UK born women

82 % of all women of child-bearing age were born in the UK, while 18 % were born outside. UK-born women therefore make the largest contribution to the overall TFR

The relative contribution of UK-born and non-UK-born mothers to the number of births per year over time.

Families by number of dependent children and ethnicity, UK, 2010:

Black and Asian or Asian British are more likely to have a larger family ; Black or Black British 24% , Chinese 8% , Mixed 13% , White 8% , Asian or Asian British 24% and Others %23.

56.3 % of all births to non-UK mothers occur in London (highest percentage), 10.3 % in North East (lowest). These two regions have consistently shown the highest and lowest percentages of births to non-UK mothers for the last 10 years. In 2010, Poland became the most common country of origin for non-UK born mothers (19,762 births in 2010), followed by Pakistan and India. Pakistan remains the most common country of origin for non-UK born fathers.

 

 

 

 

 

Numbers cohabiting doubled since 1996

Cohabitation refers to living with a partner, but not married to or in a civil partnership with them. In 2012, there were 5.9 million people cohabiting in the UK, double the 1996 figure. Over the same period, the percentage of people aged 16 or over who were cohabiting steadily increased, from 6.5 per cent in 1996 to 11.7 per cent in 2012. This makes cohabitation the fastest growing family type in the UK.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: People cohabiting in the UK, 1996 to 2012

All in all , these charts and statics are accepted by almost every site or newspaper as they used ONS statics for their assumptions. All of the claims are proven by the numbers and seem not to falsified by another source and fort he future generations , maket he best which is the best for you.

RESOURCES:

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/dcp171766_259965.pdf

https://www.moneyadviceservice.org.uk/en/articles/benefits-and-entitlements-to-claim-when-you-have-a-baby

http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/infertility/

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/family-demography/family-size/2012/family-size-rpt.html

http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/family-demography/families-and-households/2012/cohabitation-rpt.html

http://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol19/3/default.htm

https://www.populationmatters.org/documents/family_sizes.pdf

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How family meals can stop eating disorders?

Attending Family Meals

There is nothing can compete with your mom’s cooking , it’s the most delicious meal you can ever have. When you grow up or go abroad far from your family when you return and attend a meal with your parents , it’s like the heaven in your mouth. It’s the most delicious and the healthiest feast and the best part of it is the sharing the joy of gathering and telling about your day. This is the best tradition that Turkish people have I guess ; we live our individual life but we must sit around that table at every dinner and it’s healthiest meal you can ever have as you are or your mom the one who is cooking so nothing can be unhealthy or dirty. In restaurants there several disgusting examples which make us ill such as Mc Donalds. They barely clean the kitchen or the vegetables and you do not know what they put in those hamburgers to make them delicious. One of my friends was working at a super elite restaurant and she told me that the things you are eating are mostly the leftovers and warned me not to eat soup as they are dirtiest ones so don’t be a victim of capitalism as it urges you to go out instead of sitting at your warm home. Moreover , if you are a teenage you are all busy with your school issues and generally do not know how to cook so , this ends up with losing weight or gaining weight as you can not cook you prefer not to eat especially girls or to eat snacks and fast food. To sum up , the article is true of me which I’m able to see the consequences in real life.

The experiment made by Pediatrics

The second article was about how family meals can stop eating disorders and Pediatrics made a huge research on it and gathered some data. The article in Daily Mail mentiones about this based on Pediatrics. Again , the claims are clear and justified through the article and there is no mathematical inconsistency compared to the previous article we worked on called “One in Four Britons will get Cancer”. To prove these , I worked on the experiment made by the Pediatrics to see if the numbers are true in the article.

Comparison between Claims and http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/127/6/e1565.full:

-In the Article :Professor Fiese reviewed 17 studies on eating patterns and nutrition involving almost 200,000 children and teenages.

-In pediatrics.org (published on 2 May ,2011): OBJECTIVE: We used meta-analytic methods to examine the frequency of shared family mealtimes in relation to nutritional health in children and adolescents. The primary objective was to determine consistency and strength of effects across 17 studies that examined overweight and obese, food consumption and eating patterns, and disordered eating.

METHODS: The total sample size for all studies was 182 836 children and adolescents (mean sample age: 2.8–17.3 years).

-In the article : 3 family meals à safeguard the teens’ health

5 meals à 35% less likely to be disordered eaters

3 meals à youngsters à 12% less likely to be overweight

24% healthy foods/eating habits than those who share 3 meals

-In pediatrics.org : RESULTS: The frequency of shared family meals is significantly related to nutritional health in children and adolescents. Children and adolescents who share family meals 3 or more times per week are more likely to be in a normal weight range and have healthier dietary and eating patterns than those who share fewer than 3 family meals together. In addition, they are less likely to engage in disordered eating.

CONCLUSIONS: Educational and public health initiatives aimed at promoting shared family mealtimes may improve nutritional health of children and adolescents. Clinicians may advise their patients about the benefits of sharing 3 or more family mealtimes per week; benefits include a reduction in the odds for overweight (12%), eating unhealthy foods (20%), and disordered eating (35%) and an increase in the odds for eating healthy foods (24%).

As a note , in the article it says who have 5 meals with their parents are less likely to be disordered eaters but in the site it says 3 or more family mealtimes per week include a reduction in disordered eating. It’s not a inconsistency but makes a dilemma.

-In the article : Prof. Fiese says ; “For children and adolescents with disordered eating mealtime provides a setting in which parents can recognize early signs and take steps to prevent detrimental patterns from turning into full blown eating disorders.

-In the pediatrics.org :

CONCLUSIONS

The results of this study suggest that shared family mealtimes offer nutritional benefits to family members. Health professionals are advised to encourage families to eat meals together. Future studies should further develop interventions for families that struggle with health issues such as obesity and disordered eating and add focus on family mealtimes as a setting in which to promote better nutrition habits. In addition, longitudinal studies can reveal any long-term potential that family meals may have in influencing nutritional health. Specific mechanisms of how family mealtimes influence related nutritional outcomes should be investigated.

Other Claims that are not mentioned in the Pediatrics ;

-Lowers the ratio of blumia and anorexia

-Meals are less likely to be skipped

-Adolescents are less like to take up smoking to lose weight

and as for the University Illinois professor ; families who eat together are likely to be more connected , making conversations about bad diet and dangerous eating habits less awkward. This is actually very true of me as my parents would always say “The best meal is the one you eat at home.” And whenever they see me making a diet which makes me look like a 3 year old children they immediately start to talk about how dangerous it is to make diet while you are in your growing years and I never listened to them and as a consequence I’m really short and it seems a miracle to everyone that I’m 20 years old.

As a conclusion , how crucial is having a healthy meal with your parents in it’s all benefits. From now on , which one would you like to be ; a happy youngster who shares and enjoys the healthy meal with his or her parents or likely to be blumia or obese? The choice is yours.

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Answers of the Assignment

1) Headline “One in four Britons will get cancer” , First sentence ” more than one in four Britons will get cancer.” there’s Aritmetical incosistency

2) Claims are :

– “More than one in four Britons will get cancer at some point in their lives, figures reveal” – there’s no stated source or any other information about the claim. So we can’t know if it is reliable .

– “Figures obtained by Macmillan Cancer Support show 42% of us will develop cancer compared to around 32% 30 years ago”

– “But it is also partly a result of people living longer”

– “There are currently two million people in Britain with the illness and this is expectedto double within the next 20 years”

3) “Experts blame lifestyle factors such as obesity,excessive drinking and smoking for rising levels of the disease. But it is also partly a result of people living longer.” It doesn’t make any sense because these factors are bad and it can’t make people live longer it is inconsistent.

4) When people live long that means life expectancy rates are increasing. The older a person gets the weaker their immune system gets and the chances of them to be a victim of diesease of affluence increases significantly.

5) Increasing Cancer rates in a population is something bad. But if we think in economically cancer rate might be a good result. It’s in human nature , at some point people die. So it balances the population and it increases the national income per capita .

Group Members are :

1) Emre Can Topaloğlu 11424101 (Secretary)

2) Ceren Sarıtaş 11424079

3) Berivan Kızılocak 11324073

4) Buse Durdurak   11424113

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The Ancient Creators of Maths

As for the scientists , maths’ roots come from the idea of counting. If we look at the remnants , mankind has been able to measure and record things since upper paleolithic era and probably , Ishango (B.C. 20.000) and Lebombo Bones (B.C. 35.000) are the first remnants which I’ve had never heard. Lebombo bone was found in the area of Border cave in Swaziland’s Lebombo mountain and Ishango bone was found in layers of volcanic ashes on the shores of Lake Edward in the Ishango region in DRC , near the border with Uganda by the Belgian geologist named Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt. As for the passages , the Ishango bones are two bones of baboon , 10 to 14 cm long with several incisions on each faces. There are 3 colums ; the left , the right and the central column. The left column’s notches’ sum is 60 and divided into 4 groups. The right columns’ sum is 60 too and divided into 4 groups , just like the the left column but their groups’ notches are totally different. For instance ,the left one goes like 19 , 17 , 13 and 11. However , the right one goes like 9,19,21 and 11. The central column divided into 8 groups , utterly different from the right and the left and the incisions goes like (the notches’ sum is not definite) 7,5,5,10,8,4,6 and 3 so, the sum is 48 but it may be 63. The notches on the Ishango bones may have a mathematical meaning as the numbers are in order but they may be random to hold them comfortably. For some scientists , these incisions are for some simple computation. One of them , Alexander Marshack , proposed that it may be the oldest lunar calendar. Another Scientist named Claudia Zaslavsky , stated that it must have been used for to calculate menstrual cycle. To make these more clear , I would like to share the pictures of them:

ishango6ishango-bones

In our first lecture CMN 167 , we have been given an assignment. At first we were to make a research on these bones  I’ve been mentioning about and then were to answer some questions.However , I’ve read all the articles about these bones and none of them has a definite result so , I was unable to respond those questions. I’ve been in trouble with maths since primary school thus , I’ve been struggling with these questions since the assignment was given but I’ve to make some comments on these sooner or later. The third question asks us “Do you think these bones belonged to men or to women ?”. In my opinion , they might have been used to calculate the days.Hence , it is unisex. The idea of the menstrual cycle makes no sense to me to be honest but to calculate the days there must be an aim like calculating the days to harvest on time , though there was no agriculture at those times. Continuing the brainstorming , I come to an end with the idea of counting the members’ of the tribes as in those times they gathering and making groups to hunt or the numbers of the stone tools they had for hunting animals. The fourth question asks us do we think these bones belonged to old or young people. The answer is clearly young people as in those times mankind’s lives were lack of quality and could live approximately 20 or 30 years. The fifth question asks us why might the above two questions be inappropriate questions to ask. According to me , the idea of having a private possession was not discovered yet during that period so , there can’t be “belongings” and as I said in the previous sentences , there were just young people. The sixth and the last question was really challenging ;” Can you suggest how some object in our modern life that might be misinterpreted if dug up in 20,000 years time?” I was unable to figure out for a long time what exactly the question asks us about and still I’m not sure whether I’ve got it right or wrong but here is the conclusion I’ve come ; if a future scientist who lives in 20,000 times , dugs up and finds a remnant which is open to misinterpret , this can be a love letter. Todays world , we live so fast and easy. This leads us to have things without an appreciation. We are turning into robots , lack of feelings , lack of love which is the most precious instinct we have , turning into materialistic individuals. If it is like that today’s world , I can not imagine the future , 20,000 times. That scientist won’t be able to make a comment as the future us would forget what was love , how did it feel like.

The Lecture was quite catchy. I’ve never heard about those bones before and it feels really satisfying to learn something new , something about our ancestors and their way of thinking. In addition to these , I’m not really fond of technology. Actually to be honest I totally hate it and have no blogs or pages in social media like Twitter,Facebook etc. Thus , it is pretty new for me again to have a blog. I guess this lecture will be a little bit though to me. However , the slides and the speech of our Professor was intriguing and I wished that we could write up an essay on what Prof. Chris Stephonson had mentioned about during the lecture. All in all , maths and technology are obligatory and I have to love them sooner or later and I guess it will happen by the help of this lovely class.

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