The essentials of being a family
“In every conceivable manner , the family is link to our past a bridge to our future.” stresses Alex Haley the importance of being a real family. The family is one of nature’s masterpiece and protecting this earlier heaven is highly crucial to our life path ; it makes a huge impact on who we are as the all problems, our most inner weak spots are caused through what we live our parents. They are your strength and your weakness. They are the first supporters who would live with us through the bad and the good. They are the most valuable precious we can have in our limited time here and a path to our future second family ; your individual family as marrying somebody else and having children at the same way. The family is the nucleus of civilization ; we can be healthy in mind individuals owing to them. Thus , we always hear a therapist to his or her patient saying ; “Let’s talk about your childhood.” as it’s the golden key for very closed , scary door. The Effects of Family Structure and Family Process on the Psychological Well-Being of Children: From the Children’s Point of View by Christina D. Falci , a master student in U.S. had made a thesis on this subject; “The psychological well-being of children is important for several reasons. First, depressed mood impacts their social relations and their performance abilities (Compas and Hammen, 1994; Peterson et al., 1993). Second, psychological well-being in youth predicts future adult well-being. Depressive episodes in youth are likely to be chronic and recurrent throughout the life course (Robins et al., 1991). Finally, depressive moods early in life are an indicator of one’s potential for developing serious depressive disorders later in life (Gotlib et al., 1995).
Family StructureàFamily ProcessàChildren’s Psychological WellBeing
Background Variables and Individual Characteristics
-Children have easy access to both biological parents.
-Parents in intact families are likely to have higher levels of psychological well-being when compared to parents in other family structures (Acock and Demo, 1994; Gove, 1972).
-Two-parent families generally have higher household incomes. The average family income for intact households is $49,491, as compared to $10,512 for never-married families and $20,262 for divorced families (Acock and Demo, 1994; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994).
Divorced and separated families:
-21% of children in one-parent families reported higher levels of paternal emotional support than children from intact families (Amato, 1987).
-Divorced households have lower levels of income
-This family structure faces many of the same difficulties as divorced mothers in terms of lower levels of parental involvement, inconsistent discipline of children, lower levels of psychological well-being, and low income, but to a higher degree (Acock and Demo, 1994; Lempers, 1989; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). For example, they are the poorest and have the lowest levels of psychological well-being. In addition, continuously single mothers are often young, have little education (Acock and Demo, 1994), and their children may never have established relations with their biological father.
Stepfamilies and Mother-Partner Families:
–Remarriage may make children feel rejected, because the newlywed couple wants time alone (Wallerstein, 1989). Children in stepfamilies spend less time with their biological parents and stepparents, and the time they do spend with their parents is less enjoyable than children from homes (Acock and Demo, 1994). In addition, the remarriage of a custodial parent may cause a residential move (Furstenberg, 1984; McLanahan and Sandefur, 1994). As a result, relations with the non-custodial parent can become strained because geographical proximity is important in maintaining the non-custodial parent-child relationship (Hetherington, 1989).
Race is also an important predictor of psychological well-being. Black adults score lower on measures of psychological well-being, such as happiness and life satisfaction (Cambell, 1981; Herzog et al., 1982; Thomas and Hughes, 1986; Veroff, Donovan and Kulka, 1981).
How divorces and today’s lifestyles impress the rates of child births:
In today’s world modern families are tend to have at most 2 children, it’s a trend among the society as to provide a qualified life for their children. Money is the key for a qualified life and to give them a well education. Thus , families are waiting for having a children till they are able to afford the expenses but the population of the new-born generation decreases in well developed countries so governments make some allowances for you like ;
Benefits you are entitled to when having a baby
Most families are entitled to cash from the government. But working out which benefits you qualify for and how to claim can often be complicated. As a result, millions of people are missing out. Take time to read this table carefully and make sure you’re not one of them.
Benefits for families
Who is it for? Anyone responsible for a child. (If you or your partner has an individual income of over £50,000 a year, then the person with the highest income will have to pay back some or all of the Child Benefit in extra tax.)
Free prescriptions and NHS dental treatment
Who is it for? Pregnant women and new mums for the first 12 months. Prescriptions are free for everyone in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. NHS dental check-ups are free for everyone in Scotland.
Child Tax Credit
Who is it for? Anyone with responsibility for a child who normally lives with them. How much you get will depend on your household income. For example, if you have one child you will probably get tax credits if your income is not above £26,000, or £32,000 for two children.
You can still get tax credits even if your income is higher if you have childcare costs or your child has disabilities.
Between April 2013 and October 2017, Child Tax Credit is being gradually phased out and replaced by Universal Credit.
It’s from a site called https://www.moneyadviceservice.org.uk/en/articles/benefits-and-entitlements-to-claim-when-you-have-a-baby and the benefits are like pages and pages so these allowances persuade you to have a child especially persuades the people from other ethnics like Africa or India and this causes them to immigrate and make a huge contribution in the ratios of child births and also health issues has improved a lot that’s why the population seems to grow faster then the previous years. To summarize these , this is what the article “The two baby family makes a comeback” emphasizes on. Claims are ;
-2 child per woman since 1973
-having children in 30s and 40s
-46.8 per cent in England and Wales outside marriage
-highest total in 2010 since 1972
-Women in 1960s and 1970s who delayed childbearing to older ages are now catching up in terms of completed family size (2 children)
-Women have been encouraged to have more children with the help of the allowences
-Non-Uk born women and immigrants are more likely to be childbearing
-Fertility rates rose for all age groups except teenages.
To figure out if these claims are whether true or not I’ve searched for other web sites and they were all using the statics made by ONS so , claims are proven according to me which makes the huge difference between the previous article about the cancer but one that I could find through the article is ; the article says there are 3 million immigrants , around %70 in the population put down to immigrants , population has gone up 3.1 million but if we calculate it ; 3,1 . 70/100 = 2.17 , the result is not equal to 3.1.
RESEARCHES ON DIVORCES,MARRIAGES and CHILD BIRTHS In ENGLAND:
As for the http://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/jan/28/divorce-rates-marriage-ons#data it verifies the articles assertions ; “The number of divorces in England and Wales have slightly increased- as shown by the latest figures out today from the Office for National Statistics (ONS) showing a total of 118,140 divorces in 2012 – an increase of 0.5% since 2011.
According to the release in 2012 – the latest year published – there were a total of 118,140 divorces, a slight increase on 2011, when there were 117,558. Of the 2012 total, almost half of these divorces occurred in the first 10 years of marriage, with divorces most likely to occur between the fourth and eighth wedding anniversary. The ONS release also shows that 71% of divorces were for first marriages.
These divorces affect the future generations a lot as they’re frightened to get married or barely having a long-term happy marriage and at the end it alienates the future parents from childbearing. The ratios show us having two children is a trend but having more than 2 is barely seen except for the non developed regions and the given article for our assignment states these in a very clear way compared to the previous article “One in Four Britons will get Cancer”. There is no arithmetical inconsistency or any assumption that may be untrue of our knowledge. Claims are justified by the given numbers and for most of the other sites that I searched for has used the statics made by the ONS just like in the given article. For instance one of them https://www.populationmatters.org/documents/family_sizes.pdf certifies the assertions made by the ONS as two baby family is again a trend among people ;
“-Over the last 70 years, the 2 child family has consistently been the most common family size and the proportion of mothers with 3 or more children has remained fairly constant.
-The Total Fertility Rate of women in their childbearing years has been increasing steeply over the last two decades to 2.00 in 2010. This total TFR of 2.00 is composed of the TFR of UK-born women (1.88 in 2010, up from 1.69 in 2004) and that of non-UK born women (stable at 2.45 in 2010).
-Due to the rise in the population of foreign-born women in the UK, their relative contribution has increased. A quarter of all births in 2010 were to mothers born outside the UK, up from 13.2 % in 1980.
-Women are increasingly delaying childbirth to older ages. In 2010, nearly half of all babies were born to mothers aged 30 and over.
-Women of all age groups apart from teenagers contributed to this increase in births, with the largest increases in fertility seen among older women aged 35-39 and 40+.
UK born women vs. Non-UK born women
82 % of all women of child-bearing age were born in the UK, while 18 % were born outside. UK-born women therefore make the largest contribution to the overall TFR
The relative contribution of UK-born and non-UK-born mothers to the number of births per year over time.
Families by number of dependent children and ethnicity, UK, 2010:
Black and Asian or Asian British are more likely to have a larger family ; Black or Black British 24% , Chinese 8% , Mixed 13% , White 8% , Asian or Asian British 24% and Others %23.
56.3 % of all births to non-UK mothers occur in London (highest percentage), 10.3 % in North East (lowest). These two regions have consistently shown the highest and lowest percentages of births to non-UK mothers for the last 10 years. In 2010, Poland became the most common country of origin for non-UK born mothers (19,762 births in 2010), followed by Pakistan and India. Pakistan remains the most common country of origin for non-UK born fathers.
Numbers cohabiting doubled since 1996
Cohabitation refers to living with a partner, but not married to or in a civil partnership with them. In 2012, there were 5.9 million people cohabiting in the UK, double the 1996 figure. Over the same period, the percentage of people aged 16 or over who were cohabiting steadily increased, from 6.5 per cent in 1996 to 11.7 per cent in 2012. This makes cohabitation the fastest growing family type in the UK.
Figure 1: People cohabiting in the UK, 1996 to 2012
All in all , these charts and statics are accepted by almost every site or newspaper as they used ONS statics for their assumptions. All of the claims are proven by the numbers and seem not to falsified by another source and fort he future generations , maket he best which is the best for you.